Letter From Billy!

In honor and dignity to all FIGU members, and worldwide in friendship, acquaintance to all fellow men associated with the FIGU ethos like-minded as well as appreciative!

(This translation contains errors due to the insurmountable language differences between German and English.

Before reading onward, please read this necessary prerequisite to understanding this document

It is an authorised but unofficial DeepL preliminary English translation and most probably contains errors. Please note that all errors and mistakes etc. will continuously be corrected, depending on the available time of the involved persons..date of translation 2/5/2021..10:21PM)

Dear and very much appreciated FIGU members, friends and acquaintances, herewith I want to address you all with these lines – unfortunately a bit late, due to overflowing work – and wish you for the new year 2021 with a few words in this way for your well-being in terms of health, work, family and in things of existence the very best, We wish you all the best for your health, work, family and in all things of existence and also assure you that we at the Center will always keep you in our thoughts, hoping that you will all be healthy, well and spared from what is rampant around the world during the Corona epidemic. What unfortunately is happening all around in all countries and brings suffering and sorrow to countless families and people, try to prevent it in yourselves, in your family, in your friends and acquaintances by all of you keeping to the necessary safety precautions of wearing masks, keeping your distance and disinfection and all other necessities. For all of you – as well as for all people in our world – I wish to be spared from all evils, but it is necessary and inevitable for every single person to join all safety precautions and protective measures against the very aggressive and dangerous Corona virus and its mutations. In this sense I greet you all and thank you for all your letters with your kind and good wishes for my 84th birthday. Considering all your good and kind words and wishes, I feel very honored and cared for, for which I express my special heartfelt thanks to all of you, and also hope that all of us, without exception, will survive everything well and that we will soon be able to enjoy life together again in the old way. 

Sincerely Billy 

Roots of all things

In order to understand, honor and appreciate the existence and life of all living things in the right measure, man must recognize, know and live compassionately with all living things, as well as protect the roots of everything that exists, be it an animal, beast, insect or be it plant etc…, because he is connected with all of them; and like him, all living beings also have an intrinsic aliveness and also feel suffering and pain when physical or psychological harm, torture, anguish or distress is inflicted on them, which is why it is valid: Man, do not inflict any agony on any life,

because it feels just like

you agony and pain,

cries and weeps.

SSSC, 3.2.1981

00.17 h, Billy

And one more word of importance!

Contrary to the intelligent-unreasonable ignorance and unreasonableness of all those stupid-brash and irresponsible conspiracy theorists, cross-thinkers, know-it-alls and querulous people, who are morbidly important to mislead the rational-thinking people, by stupid-brashly playing down the Corona plague and trying to present the whole thing as a lie and fraud or as a devious government measure, in order to drastically reduce the blatant overpopulation quickly, this does not correspond to the truth, but to a malicious and irresponsible, deliberately obscuring the real truth and misleading people into a life-threatening delusion, which brings suffering, illness, sorrow and grief or even death to many people.

The truth is that the Corona epidemic corresponds to a real contagious and life-threatening infectious disease, which causes mass infections and mass deaths, which, moreover, cannot be countered with any medicines and thus can neither be fought nor cured. From the medical point of view, the only solution is a proper and valuable vaccination, which at present is unfortunately still uncertain for a comprehensive effect and guarantee of prevention, because the lack of tests and experience is still insufficient, thus causing more harm than good and even causing deaths as well as long-term damage and late effects, as is unfortunately already proving to be the case and confirming the already early predictions.

What can be done at present against the Corona epidemic and for the personal as well as fellow-human health well-being, should be obligation for each the Intelligentum, understanding and the reason pregnant humans and be followed, because that is the only real possibility to do personally something for the own and the fellow-humans protection against the aggressive Corona virus. And this alternative consists basically in the following feasibilities:

1. the wearing of respirators suitable and adapted to the situation shall be observed without fail wherever the necessity requires it.

2. when wearing respirators, it is necessary to take them off from time to time to breathe fresh air for 10 to 15 minutes to allow the lungs to recover as a result of the stress of breathing through the mask.

3. to keep an appropriate distance from the nearest person – usually about 2 meters – according to the wind and personal conditions – family, friendship, acquaintances, strangers.

4. disinfect the hands with a suitable non-chemical and non-chlorine disinfectant, but with approx. 70-75% alcohol or ethanol, which has been used since the 12th century and can be mixed with water in any concentration. A description clarifies that the most important mechanism of action is the ability of alcohol-ethanol to change proteins, even in bacteria and some types of viruses that have a coating of different proteins. The SARS Cov-2 virus, the causative agent of the Corona disease, has a coating of protein that is very destructible by disinfectant made from ethanol. This disinfectant deprives the corona germ of the possibility to enter the human organism, consequently it cannot settle and multiply. Ethanol not only attacks the envelope of bacteria and viruses, but also destroys the protein structure of fungi.

FFP respirators

All FFP masks from FFP1, FFP2 and FFP3 usually correspond to respirators, which, as the name suggests, are designed to protect the respiratory system and must be disposed of after use. Depending on the mask class, respirators can be worn and used only for a short time, such as cheap and practically almost or completely useless paper masks or self-made cheap fabric masks. Depending on the case – which each person must decide for himself – protective masks can be used and worn and protected by them only for a very short time, but on the other hand, depending on the mask class and its quality, for 8, 10 or 12 hours etc., before they have to be disposed of.

Due to their size, the fine, almost invisible fine dust particles or microorganisms, etc., that float around in the air we breathe are among the non-negligible hazards in the working environment and in terms of health protection against germs. Due to the danger of contagious diseases as well as radioactive contamination or carcinogenic substances such as bacteria and viruses etc., the protective masks designed for occupational breathing protection are also used for protection against germs of all kinds, on the one hand to protect the respiratory system sustainably and on the other hand to protect the organism against germs so that no damage occurs. Effectively, this can only be ensured by suitable respirators with sufficient protection classes, so-called FFP masks, through which any long-term risks can be reduced or completely avoided.

With regard to suitable and good respiratory protection masks, the leading brand worldwide is 3M, whereby this designation is listed as an abbreviation for the US company <Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company>, i.e. 3xM. This company corresponds to a global multi-technology corporation headquartered in Saint Paul in the U.S. state of Minnesota, which is known to consumers not only as 3M but also, among other things, through its registered trademarks <Post-it> (roughly: adhesive notepads) and <Scotch>. The company produces more than 50,000 different products based on 47 technology platforms and more than 25,000 patents.

Why respirators should be worn

Aerosols that are exhaled and saliva droplets or smaller or larger quantities of secretion droplets or expiration droplets from the mucous membranes in the mouth and nose that are excreted into the air and released when speaking usually have a diameter of between 0.5 μm and 12 μm – μm stands for micrometer: = 1 micrometer = 1 millionth of a meter = 1 thousandth of a millimeter; previously, a μm was called a micron or My or Mü after the Greek letter μ. Mü – whereby in particular the larger saliva or secretion droplets can contain infecting microorganisms. Microorganisms or a microorganism – a microbe, is a microscopic single organism that is not visible to the naked eye. Referred to as a micro, it is at least 2 dimensions smaller than about 30 μm.Most microorganisms are unicellular organisms, but they also include few-celled tiny or microorganisms.

Microorganisms, as well as many tiny material particles, seed dust and spores of all kinds, are almost or completely invisible substances suspended in the air we breathe, through which they are spread. Microorganisms correspond to the most insidious health risks for humans. However, particle filtering half masks offer protection against such hazards, and these masks are divided into three protection classes FFP1, FFP2 and FFP3. The subdivision into three FFP classes is made by the abbreviation FFP, which stands for <filtering face piece>. A respiratory protection mask covers nose and mouth and consists of different filter materials and the mask itself.

The information given by me is purely non-binding, to which it must be explained that the protection classes indicated are usually suitable for various applications in working areas, are used and serve in this respect safety-bidding the corresponding minimum requirements. In principle, the responsibility of the use of the masks lies with the persons themselves who use them, although it is recommended to check them before use, namely whether the respirator allows breathing and whether it meets the requirements regarding the rejection of hazardous substances and the user’s breathing quality. Therefore, for the selection of proper personal protective masks, an on-site assessment must always be made when purchasing masks, because if breathing difficulties should occur while wearing the mask, neither the retail stores nor the manufacturers of the masks assume any liability for any health difficulties or damages.

If hazardous substances and their concentration are known, it is sometimes possible to select a specific FFP mask. The classification of masks is based not only on the filtering performance of the mask, but also on the maximum permissible leakage resulting from the leakage of the product or the permeability of the filtering material and the openings in places where the mask does not fit exactly on the face.

Respirators are used to protect the wearer from airborne pollutants, such as respiratory toxins, particles, spores, dust and microorganisms, etc., as well as bacteria. The masks prevent such harmful substances from entering the respiratory tract, for example, during work, influenza, epidemics and pandemics. They are used in particular at workplaces, in rescue services and by the fire department. In particular, respirators are used in the nursing sector and during operations, where medical masks or surgical masks are used.

The importance of respiratory protection

Hazardous particles may be more or less or very carcinogenic or radioactive, while others may damage the body’s respiratory system over decades and possibly over a lifetime, leading to the long-term development of serious diseases. If the masks are used in work areas, then workers may only have to deal with unpleasant odors.

Respirators provide protection against aqueous and oily aerosols, smoke and fine dust during work in three classes, and the masks are standardized throughout Europe in terms of their protective function according to EN 149. Particle filtering half masks or fine dust masks are divided into three protection classes: FFP1, FFP2, FFP3.

Respirators protect mainly against respirable dust, smoke and liquid mist, so-called aerosols, but not against vapor and gas. Aerosols are also exhaled by humans, just as they excrete droplets of saliva when they speak. As a result, aerosols and droplets are inhaled by other people and can be infected with pathogens. Respirators serve two purposes in the event of infectious agents or other contagious diseases, such as influenza, epidemics and pandemics:

1. by wearing protective masks, ill persons are prevented from releasing aerosols uninhibitedly into the air by breathing and speaking, which are then inhaled by other persons, thereby becoming infected with germs and also falling ill.

2 Wearing protective masks prevents healthy persons from ingesting foreign bodies such as toxins or germs, but also prevents them from being infected with the germs of other sick persons through exhaled aerosols and expelled expiratory droplets and from falling ill themselves, which is what respiratory protective masks are designed to prevent.

A respirator is composed of various filter materials and the mask itself, and this covers the nose and mouth. Basically, such masks are designed for various work activities, at workplaces where the workplace limit value of dust, smoke and aero- sols, etc. in the air breathed is exceeded. This means that respiratory masks prevent the inhalation of excessive concentrations of such harmful substances, which may cause serious health damage or death to humans. If a certain concentration of pollutants of any kind is exceeded, especially with regard to infectious germs, then the wearing of respiratory protection masks is generally obligatory on the basis of personal responsibility as well as intelligence, understanding and reason.

Respirators with or without valve

1) Respirators without a valve filter both the fresh air that is breathed in from outside and the used air that is depleted of oxygen, thus providing personal and external protection for the person wearing the mask.

2) General protective masks with a valve only filter the inhaled air and therefore only serve for the personal protection of the person wearing the protective mask, which is why the valve masks are not designed for external protection.

3) Special respirators – which are not bigger than normal nose-mouth masks and are expensive to buy ($200 and more), also have a small electric actuator to regulate the breathing air supply, as their valve excretes not only the inhaled but also the used breathing air with up to 5 times filtration.

4) Respirators with expiration valves are not suitable for positively ill persons, because the used breathing air can flow out unhindered through the valve and thus the released germs can spread all around in the air.

The same types of masks that are used for work are also absolutely useful against infectious germs, so they are also used in this respect to prevent germs from entering the respiratory tract and mucous membranes and thus the organism, multiplying in it and causing diseases. Depending on this, certain mask classes must be selected in order to ensure the best possible protection.

The relevant protection classes FFP1, FFP2 and FFP3 provide respiratory protection for different concentrations of material pollutants, toxins, spores, particles, microorganisms, bacteria, smoke and vapors, etc., but not against gases, radiation such as radioactivity or vibrations, depending on the total leakage or permeability of the mask material and the filtering of particle sizes up to 0.6 μm.

Depending on the quality class of the mask, good respiratory protection masks can also offer a certain degree of safety against viruses up to 94% or a maximum of 96%, although it must be clear that absolute safety against viruses is not possible, and viruses cannot be killed, but only destroyed, because they are not life forms, but lifeless organic structures. Only living beings can be killed, but not lifeless organisms.

With regard to the total leakage or the filter passage and the leakage of the material of respiratory protection masks as well as the connection to the face and nose, it is also important that the mask must be adapted to the human anatomy or that it must be adapted to the face as far as possible. An innovative filter technology of the mask is also important, because the breathing resistance must be low and breathing must not be impeded by trapped particles in the filter, even if the respirator is used several times.

Respirator mask classes

FFP1: Class FFP1 respirators may only be used in environments where no toxic or fibrogenic or protein aerosols are present. The 4-fold occupational exposure limit of FFP1 class respirators must not be exceeded. In addition, the protective masks can be used only for a short time and must be changed frequently as soon as they become damp from breathing and talking, as well as in contact with people, because they are designed to provide only short-term and weak protection against aerosols and saliva droplets.

a) Respirators of protection class FFP1 are generally suitable for working environments in which only non-toxic materials are present. They have a separation efficiency of 80% and are designed and useful for approximately 4 times the workplace exposure to pollutants such as dust and other non-toxic materials.

b) Respirators of protection class FFP1 are in no way suitable with regard to toxic substances, bacteria, gases or viruses of any kind, but these masks protect only against material particles, such as, among others, against non-toxic types of dust, e.g. cellulose, cement, gypsum, limestone, spores or pollen, etc.

c) Fabric masks, also self-made ones, of any kind, usually correspond – in the best case – to the mask protection class FFP1, however, they are absolutely useless against pathogens of any kind, consequently such masks do not offer any protection against germs and therefore should neither be manufactured nor used. Basically, such masks act only as a pretense of false facts or illusory imagination with regard to a protective function against germs.

FFP2: Respirators of protection class FFP2 are designed for working environments in which harmful and mutagenic substances occur and are suspended in the air. This class of masks is designed to capture at least 94% of airborne particles and must therefore be used for work where the limit value of the hazardous substance in question is no more than 10 times the permissible concentration.

a) FFP2 class respirators should be used responsibly for personal protection and for the protection of others when infectious germs are present.

b) FFP2 class respirators have a filtration efficiency of about 92%, which means that the respirator is effective in preventing foreign substances from entering the respiratory tract. The higher the filtration efficiency of the respirator, the better its performance.

c) Generally speaking, the filtration efficiency is the ratio of the amount or concentration of the foreign substance that is separated or retained in the filtering system of the mask and prevents it from entering the respiratory tract. And in simpler terms, it means that the separation efficiency is what is stopped and retained at the front of the mask, so that it cannot pass through the mask and enter the respiratory tract.

d) FFP2 class respirators also protect against toxic dust types, such as calcium oxide, concrete dust, granite or zinc oxide smoke.

e) Respirators of protection class FFP2 also protect against bacteria to a large extent, and to a certain degree against viruses.

f) Respirators of protection class FFP2 also protect against various substances in the air, which are still unknown to science, and which are hazardous to health and mutagenic.

FFP3: Respiratory protection masks of the protection class FFP3 offer a good protection also with high load of the breathing air and show according to plejarischen research results a separation achievement of 94% to 96%, however not 98% to 99%, as according to terrestrial-virological wrong data is maintained. These percentage calculations say that therefore no 100% security can be given that in the worst case not nevertheless an infection by disease germs can take place. However, at 94% or 96%, the safety level is very high, so there is no need to worry about infection, but this does not mean that mask wearing and spacing can be neglected or stopped.

a) Respirators of protection class FFP3 can be used in working environments where a limit value of toxic substances is exceeded up to 30 times the industry-specific value, consequently they protect against e.g. toxic dust types such as from chromium, cobalt, nickel or mold spores.

b) Respirators of protection class FFP3 are very suitable against toxic, carcinogenic and radioactive particles, as well as against bacterial, viral, microorganic and many other germs. To repeat, in order to understand clearly: With a separation degree of 94% up to 96% – according to Pleiara’s safe research results, which are probably much more exact and precise than the earthly-scientific research results of 98%-99% – the FFP3 mask, when the mask is properly fitted, retains many types of harmful particles, toxins and microorganisms, as well as bacteria and viruses. This is the reason why FFP3 masks are also used in laboratories for handling viruses and bacteria, as well as for many manual work processes and for special chemical and medical requirements.

Difference of respirators FFP2, FFP3, N95, KN95

If the respiratory protection standard of the respirators of the classes FFP2, FFP3, KN95, N95 is compared with each other, then some differences arise.

Respiratory protection masks with and without filters are classified worldwide according to various strict regulations and standards, whereby these must have certain required and specific properties as well as the corresponding performance characteristics according to the corresponding standard and must therefore be inherent to the respiratory protection masks.

All respirators of classes FFP2, FFP3, N95, KN95, P2, DS are tested and designed to protect mask wearers to a certain degree against infectious germs, including bacteria, many types of microorganisms and viruses.

An epidemic or pandemic corresponds at any time and in any case to an emergency situation, in which not only long-term and effective measures such as lockdown, the strict wearing of respiratory protective masks and withstanding from person to person must be observed, but especially the use of specifically designed respiratory protective masks, which prevent the highest possible safety from infection by germs such as bacteria, microorganisms and viruses. 

Recommended for this purpose:

Especially the respirators with the designation 3M, namely of the class type FFP2 and FFP3, which have been tested to separate bioaerosols, such as e.g. viruses, equivalently or adequately well, respectively, and to retain them from and on the mask.

Respirators of this standard, of the class type 3M FFP2, N95, are particularly recommended, as well as other equivalent products, such as the respirators listed below, which are suitable up to 94% or even 96%, filter out particles up to a size of 0.6 μm contained in the breathing air, as well as bacteria, microorganisms and viruses.

These masks are also well suited for filtering various air pollutants of all kinds, but not against gases, radiation and vibrations:

KN95 (China GB2626-2006)

P2 (Australia/New Zealand AS/NZA 1716:2012) FFP2 (Europe EN 149-2001)

N95 (United States NIOSH-42CFR84)

DS (Japan JMHLW-Notification 214, 2018) Korea 1st class (Korea KMOEL – 2017-64)

FFP3 class respirators meet the international standard and have an even slightly higher filtration performance, which according to Pleiades research results yields filtration up to 96% (contrary to the terrestrial test claim of 99.5%), therefore, in any case, even with this best possible mask, there is no guarantee of 100% elimination of germs, at least as far as viruses are concerned, but this type of FFP 3 mask also protects against toxic dust, such as chromium, cobalt, nickel or mold spores, etc.

Masks that can protect against viruses up to 94% and 96%.

The following respirators have a filtering capacity of up to 94% or 96% and provide even better protection than the other types mentioned above.

FFP2, N95, KN95, P2, DS and FFP3

Surgical masks,Medical face masks

Surgical masks are usually made of multi-layer, air-filtering nonwoven material that is partially coated on the outside with a water-repellent layer. These protective masks are attached either to the back of the head with straps or to the ears with rubber loops and must always be worn so that the mouth and nose are covered.

These surgical protective masks correspond to disposable products and are designed in terms of their filtering performance in Euronorm EN 14683.

The medical or surgical face masks, which are also called ‘surgical masks’ and ‘surgical masks’ or ‘hygiene masks’ and have the designation standard EN 14683, correspond to medical products and must therefore be marked with CE. 

Unfortunately, counterfeit inferior products of this and other types are widely offered and sold on the market, which are not compliant with the medical face masks, but only pretend to be compliant and tested products, consequently they also do not provide the protection that is promised.

SSSC, 20.1.2021, 17.33 h, Billy

Excerpts from Wikipedia:

Use of mouth-to-nose coverings, medical face masks, and particle-filtering half masks (FFP masks).

The Corona pandemic (SARS-CoV-2 pandemic) and the covid-19 illnesses caused by the virus have changed our daily lives dramatically. One of the most obvious changes comes from the now mandatory use of masks in many areas. By wearing the masks, citizens can do their part to prevent the unhindered spread of the so-called ‘coronavirus’ (SARS-CoV-2). This is to reduce the transmission of the virus from person to person and subsequently the risk of possible infection.

There are various types of masks, some of which differ significantly in their design and protective effect.

The wearing of masks is always only one part of a comprehensive protection concept with which we jointly combat the spread of the coronavirus. Therefore, the ‘AHA+L’ formula still applies: Keep your distance, pay attention to hygiene, wear an everyday mask and ventilate.

When using masks, the following should be considered:

Among the masks currently used in infection control, a basic distinction is made between three types of masks:

1. there are mouth-nose coverings, which are also called, for example, everyday mask, makeshift mouth-nose mask; com- munity mask.

2. the medical face masks known from the medical everyday life, colloquially for example also OP masks, mouth nose protection, mouth guard called. These are ‘medical devices’. 3.

3. and the particle-filtering half masks, which are also known colloquially as respiratory protection masks, FFP masks. The name FFP is an abbreviation derived from the English name of the masks ‘Filtering Face Piece’. These masks belong to the product category ‘Personal Protective Equipment’ (PPE).

Mouth-nose covering

Everyday masks or mouth-nose coverings are usually fabric masks that can be very versatile in appearance. They are often sewn from commercially available fabrics and worn in everyday life. Since they do not belong to the category of medical devices or personal protective equipment, there are no legal requirements or technical standards for filtering performance that they must meet. However, they should be manufactured in such a way that they cover the mouth and nose and fit as closely as possible to the face at the edges.

Mouth-nose coverings, unlike medical face masks or particle-filtering half masks, are not tested according to corresponding legal and normative requirements. They can therefore be placed on the market without these regulatory procedures. Thus, for the materials used for the production of these masks, there are no specifications by the legislator, e.g. on filtering performance, but specifications may be applicable, e.g. on the freedom of the textiles used from harmful substances. In most cases, these masks are sewn from commercially available fabrics. Their appearance and impermeability are correspondingly varied, as the fabrics used differ in design and material properties. They are worn in everyday life and are therefore colloquially often called everyday masks.

It is important to distinguish them from medical devices or personal protective equipment. Everyday masks may not be advertised with corresponding performance or protective effects, because they did not have to pass any test procedures according to such requirements. Therefore, everyday masks may not be sold as medical devices or products of personal protective equipment.

Everyday masks do not provide the performance evidence defined in the technical standards as required for medical face masks and particle-filtering half masks. Thus, they generally provide less protection than these regulated and tested mask types. However, this does not mean that they have no protective effect. Internationally, there are numerous scientific publications that confirm the experience gained about the effectiveness of the mouth-nose coverings in terms of general population protection. The protective effect of the masks depends on the tightness and quality of the material used, the adaptation to the shape of the face and the number of layers of fabric. Tightly woven fabrics, for example, are more suitable than lightly woven fabrics in this context. Thus, according to current knowledge, the correct wearing of good everyday masks can significantly reduce the risk of exposure to droplets containing pathogens.

A special group of everyday masks are those manufactured according to a special standard, the European ‘CEN Work-shop Agreement CWA 17553’.

Although these masks are also everyday masks and therefore neither personal protective equipment nor medi- cine products with corresponding binding test specifications and regulatory control, the CWA nevertheless imposes specific performance requirements on these masks. They must filter at least 70% or 90% of particles with a diameter of 3 (± 0.5) micrometers.

Although a separate standard is used here, these masks, like other everyday masks, are not subject to any specific government or other regulatory oversight such as medical devices or personal protective equipment. The manufacturer is solely responsible for the implementation of the specifications. Nevertheless, if the standard is applied correctly, this marking can be a sign of quality.

Medical face masks

Medical face masks, mouth-nose protection (MNS), often also called surgical masks, are disposable products that are normally used in everyday clinical practice or in doctors’ offices. They are made of special plastics and have a multilayer structure. They are very similar in appearance: rectangular shape with folds to allow the mask to conform to the face. The front side (outside) is usually colored, the back side (inside) is not. The masks have ear loops and a wire nose clip. They have clearly defined filtering properties.

Medical face masks are medical devices and were developed for the protection of others. Their main purpose is to protect the other person from infectious droplets emitted by the face mask wearer. However, medical face masks can also protect the wearer of the mask if they are fitted tightly, even if this is not their actual function. In the clinic, for example, they are used to prevent droplets from the doctor’s breathing air from getting into a patient’s open wounds.

When a person is angry or enraged with another, 

he takes revenge on himself 

because of his own

mad unreasonableness. 

SSSC, 30 June 2011 23.15 h, Billy

Meier Corroboration #207

Cosmic Love

February 1st, 2021


Prehistoric teeth unearthed at a site in Jersey reveal signs of interbreeding between Neanderthals and our own species, scientists say.

UK experts re-studied 13 teeth found between 1910 and 1911 at La Cotte de St Brelade in the island’s south-west.

They were long regarded as being typical Neanderthal specimens, but the reassessment also uncovered features characteristic of modern human teeth.

The teeth may represent some of the last known Neanderthal remains.

As such, they might even yield clues to what caused the disappearance of our close evolutionary cousins.

The Neanderthals evolved around 400,000 years ago and inhabited a large area from western Europe to Siberia.

They were typically shorter and stockier than modern humans, with a thick ridge of bone overhanging the eyes.

They finally disappeared around 40,000 years ago, just as anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens), a newly arrived species…

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